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PostPosted: Thu Apr 13, 2017 10:47 am 
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Databases are basically containers for data. Today typically in digital form. Databases are computer structures that save, organize, protect, and deliver data.

A system that contains databases is called a Data Base Management System, or DBMS.

The typical diagram representation for a database is a cylinder.

The different types of databases include operational databases, end-user databases, distributed databases, analytical databases, relational databases, hierarchical databases and database models.

The simplest form of databases is a text database. When data is organized in a text file in rows and columns, it can be used to store, organize, protect, and retrieve data.

Desktop database programs are another type of database that's more complex than a text database but intended for a single user. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet or Microsoft Access are good examples of desktop database programs

Relational database for managing data over desktop database programs. For example, they allow multiple users to work with the data at the same time, creating advanced security for access to the data. Relational databases are the most common database systems. They include databases like SQL Server, Oracle Database, Sybase, Informix, and MySQL.

RDBMS systems store data in columns and rows, which in turn make up tables. A table in RDBMS is like a spreadsheet.

A set of tables makes up a schema. A number of schemas create a database. Many databases can be created on a single server.

Each table has a key field which is used to connect it to other tables.

Relationships are a logical connection between different tables, established on the basis of interaction among these tables.

These databases are extensively used in various industries and will be the one you are most likely to come across when working in IT.

Relational Database:
A relational database is a digital database whose organization is based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.

The various software systems used to maintain relational databases are known as a relational database management system (RDBMS).

Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) as the language for querying and maintaining the database.

In a relational database, all data are stored and accessed via relations. Relations that store data are called "base relations", and in implementations are called "tables".

Other relations do not store data, but are computed by applying relational operations to other relations. These relations are sometimes called "derived relations".

Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA) was designed by a workgroup within IBM in the period 1988 to 1994.

DRDA enables network connected relational databases to cooperate to fulfill SQL requests

Some popular database management systems include PostgreSQL, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, IBM DB2 and SAP.

Popular And Important Relational Databases
A database software comparison, then, is useful for choosing the right database for you.
In this article, we are going to introduce six major and important open-source relational database management systems that have helped to shape the world of application development.

MySQL
One of the most influential and widely spread open source database applications that manipulates large databases and can be accessed over the Web is MySQL database server.
MySQL popularity for use with web applications is closely associated to the popularity of PHP programming language which is often used along with MySQL.
MySQL is very popular with startup companies, small or medium businesses and projects because it can be easy to use at a low cost.
MySQL is a household name among databases and it also have a couple of forks that aim to improve certain aspects of MySQL like MariaDB or Percona server.

MSSQL
Microsoft SQL Server designed to create web, enterprise, and desktop database systems.
MS SQL Server allows you to store large amount of data which handles components like video, photographs, numbers, text, and much more.
Microsoft SQL Server is developed to manage terra bytes of data

Microsoft Access
Microsoft Access that can handle only 1 gigabyte of data.
MS Access is an ideal solution for start level users as they have the ability to create database structures and relations.
MS Access can be used by small businesses, within branches of large corporations, and by pastime programmers to design special customized desktop systems for manipulating the creation and management of data.
Microsoft Access has the lowest processing speed of all of the databases being compared, with Microsoft SQL server running three to five times fast than Access

Oracle
Oracle is one of the leading commercial SQL relational database management systems
Larry Ellison and his two friends and former co-workers, Bob Miner and Ed Oates, started a consultancy called Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while formerly employed by Ampex.
The partitioning feature was introduced in Oracle 8. This allows the partitioning of tables based on different set of keys. Specific partitions can then be added or dropped to help manage large data sets.
Oracle doesn’t provide Support for the GUI,but the SQL Server provides GUI of any syntax of the command

PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL is a relational DBMS that many web application developers prefer as the back-end data management component
The most advanced, SQL-compliant and open-source objective-RDBMS.
Postgres is especially known to be very extensible so if you need to perform custom procedures Postgres is a good choice to look into
An example of that is that it allows user-defined functions to be written in couple of languages other than SQL.

SQLite
SQLite is a software library that implements a self-contained, serverless, zero-configuration, transactional SQL database engine
SQLite is a right choice as the database for small and mid-sized websites.
SQLite offers an amazing set of tools to handle all sorts of data with much less constraint and ease compared to hosted, process based (server) relational databases.
In many cases, applications that need to read/write files to disk directly can benefit from switching to SQLite for additional functionality and simplicity that comes from using the Structured Query Language (SQL).

MariaDB
One of the most popular database servers. Made by the original developers of MySQL. Guaranteed to stay open source.
MariaDB is a high performance, open source database that helps the world's busiest websites deliver more content, faster.
MariaDB turns data into structured information in a wide array of applications, ranging from banking to websites
It is an enhanced, drop-in replacement for MySQL.
MariaDB is used because it is fast, scalable and robust, with a rich ecosystem of storage engines, plugins and many other tools make it very versatile for a wide variety of use cases.
Fedora developers replaced MySQL with MariaDB in Fedora 19, out of concerns that Oracle was making MySQL a more closed software project.
MariaDB is a registered trademark of MariaDB Corporation AB, used under license by the MariaDB Foundation
MariaDB claims several speed improvements over MySQL

IBM DB2
IBM DB2 is the database that offers enterprise-wide solutions handling high-volume workloads. It is optimized to deliver industry-leading performance while lowering costs.
DB2 is designed to store, analyze and retrieve the data efficiently.
DB2 product is extended with the support of Object-Oriented features and non-relational structures with XML.
The name DB2, or IBM Database 2, was first given to the Database Management System or DBMS in 1983 when IBM released DB2 on its MVS mainframe platform

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