Daylight saving time (DST) is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months by one hour so that evening daylight lasts an hour longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
Daylight Saving Time is also called as Summer Time in some places of the world.
Typically, regions that use Daylight Savings Time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time.
American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s.
The DST practice has both advocates and critics. Some early proponents of DST aimed to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting—once a primary use of electricity —today's heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST affects energy use is limited and contradictory.
DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, billing, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, and sleep patterns. Computer software often adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing.
Start and end dates vary with location and year. Since 1996, European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union. Starting in 2007, most of the United States and Canada observe DST from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November, almost two-thirds of the year.
Proponents of Daylight Saving Time generally argue that it saves energy, promotes outdoor leisure activity in the evening (in summer), and is therefore good for physical and psychological health, reduces traffic accidents, reduces crime, or is good for business. Groups that tend to support DST are urban workers, retail businesses, outdoor sports enthusiasts and businesses, tourism operators, and others who benefit from increased light during the evening in summer.
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