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PostPosted: Fri Jul 07, 2017 6:29 am 

Joined: Fri Nov 13, 2015 3:56 am
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Materials science looks at the design and creation of just that: the materials we use to make things.

The field is related to chemistry and engineering.These are the world's top universities for materials science, based on their reputation and research in the field.Some of the new materials are listed below.

Vantablack material:
A British company, called "Surrey NanoSystems" has produced a strange material so black that it absorbs all but 0.035 per cent of visual light, setting a new world record. This "super black" material is named as "vantablack" by combining first letters of the term "Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays"

It is so dark that the human eye cannot understand what it is seeing. Shapes and contours are lost. If it was used to make black dresses, the wearer's head and limbs might appear to float around a dress-shaped hole.

It can be used for enabling astronomical cameras, telescopes and infrared scanning systems to function more effectively.Scientists have grown Vantablack on sheets of aluminum foil.Vantablack is created using carbon nanotubes which are arranged so light can't escape from it.

2D Tin Monoxide - A New Atom Thick Semiconducting material:
University of Utah engineers have discovered a new kind of 2D semiconducting material for electronics that opens the door for much speedier computers and smartphones that also consume a lot less power

The semiconductor, made of the elements tin and oxygen, or tin monoxide (SnO), is a layer of 2D material only one atom thick, allowing electrical charges to move through it much faster than conventional 3D materials such as silicon. This material could be used in transistors, the lifeblood of all electronic devices such as computer processors and graphics processors in desktop computers and mobile devices. The material was discovered by a team led by University of Utah materials science and engineering associate professor Ashutosh Tiwari.
The benefit of 2D materials, which is an exciting new research field that has opened up only about five years ago, is that the material is made of one layer the thickness of just one or two atoms. Consequently, the electrons "can only move in one layer so it's much faster"

Phase-changing material:
a phase-changing material built from wax and foam, and capable of switching between hard and soft states, could allow even low-cost robots to perform the same feat.

The material developed by MIT researchers could be used to build deformable surgical robots. The robots could move through the body to reach a particular point without damaging any of the organs or vessels along the way.

The Robots built from this material could also be used in search-and-rescue operations to squeeze through rubble looking for survivors

Sponge like material:
Researchers at MIT have developed a new spongelike material structure which can use 85% of incoming solar energy for converting water into steam.

This spongelike structure has a layer of graphite flakes and an underlying carbon foam. This structure has many small pores.
It can float on the water, and it will act as an insulator for preventing heat from escaping to the underlying liquid, .
As sunlight hits the structure, it creates a hotspot in the graphite layer, generating a pressure gradient that draws water up through the carbon foam. As water seeps into the graphite layer, the heat concentrated in the graphite turns the water into steam. This structure works much like a sponge.

This new material is able to use 85 percent of incoming solar energy for converting water into steam. It is a significant improvement over recent approaches to solar-powered steam generation. And, this setup loses very little heat in the process, and can produce steam at relatively low solar intensity. i-e if scaled up, this setup will not require complex, costly systems to highly concentrate sunlight.

3D-printed material:
Engineers at MIT and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have devised a way to translate that airy, yet remarkably strong, structure down to the microscale - designing a system that could be fabricated from a variety of materials, such as metals or polymers, and that may set new records for stiffness for a given weight.

The new design is based on the use of microlattices with nanoscale features, combining great stiffness and strength with ultralow density.
The actual production of such materials is made possible by a high-precision 3-D printing process called projection microstereolithography.

Normally, stiffness and strength declines with the density of any material; that's why when bone density decreases, fractures become more likely. But using the right mathematically determined structures to distribute and direct the loads, the lighter structure can maintain its strength. It is similar to the way Eiffel tower gets its strenth by the way of the arrangement of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal beams.

Transparent, self-healing, highly stretchable conductive material:
Scientists from the University of California, Riverside, have developed a transparent, self-healing, highly stretchable conductive material that can be electrically activated to power artificial muscles and could be used to improve batteries, electronic devices, and robots.

The findings, which were published in the journal Advanced Material, represent the first time scientists have created an ionic conductor, meaning materials that ions can flow through, that is transparent, mechanically stretchable, and self-healing.

The material has potential applications in a wide range of fields. It could give robots the ability to self-heal after mechanical failure; extend the lifetime of lithium ion batteries used in electronics and electric cars; and improve biosensors used in the medical field and environmental monitoring.This project brings together the research areas of self-healing materials and ionic conductors.

Porous, 3-D forms of Graphene Material:
A team of researchers at MIT has designed one of the strongest lightweight materials known, by compressing and fusing flakes of graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon. The new material, a sponge-like configuration with a density of just 5 percent, can have a strength 10 times that of steel.

In its two-dimensional form, graphene is thought to be the strongest of all known materials. But researchers until now have had a hard time translating that two-dimensional strength into useful three-dimensional materials.

The new findings show that the crucial aspect of the new 3-D forms has more to do with their unusual geometrical configuration than with the material itself, which suggests that similar strong, lightweight materials could be made from a variety of materials by creating similar geometric features.

Edible Food Packaging made from Milk Protein Casein:
At the grocery store, most foods -- meats, breads, cheeses, snacks -- come wrapped in plastic packaging. Not only does this create a lot of non-recyclable, non-biodegradable waste, but thin plastic films are not great at preventing spoilage. And some plastics are suspected of leaching potentially harmful compounds into food. To address these issues, scientists are now developing a packaging film made of milk proteins -- and it is even edible.

The researchers are presenting their work at American Chemical Society (ACS).The protein-based films are powerful oxygen blockers that help prevent food spoilage. When used in packaging, they could prevent food waste during distribution along the food chain

And spoiled food is just one issue. Current food packaging is mainly petroleum-based, which is not sustainable. It also does not degrade, creating tons of plastic waste that sits in landfills for years.

Invisible "Second Skin" XPL Cream Makes Wrinkles Disappear:
Scientists at MIT, Massachusetts General Hospital, Living Proof, and Olivo Labs have developed a new material that can temporarily protect and tighten skin, and smooth wrinkles. With further development, it could also be used to deliver drugs to help treat skin conditions such as eczema and other types of dermatitis.

The material, a silicone-based polymer that could be applied on the skin as a thin, imperceptible coating, mimics the mechanical and elastic properties of healthy, youthful skin. In tests with human subjects, the researchers found that the material was able to reshape “eye bags” under the lower eyelids and also enhance skin hydration. This type of “second skin” could also be adapted to provide long-lasting ultraviolet protection

2D magnet "chromium triiodide (CrI3)":
Lot of 2D materials were discovered since the discovery of graphene in 2004.
But until now 2d magnets are not available.

Now, For the first time. Scientists have created 2D magnets that are just one atom thick.A team led by the University of Washington and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has for the first time discovered magnetism in the 2-D world of monolayers, or materials that are formed by a single atomic layer

3D-print Transparent Glass:
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) unveiled a first of its kind optically transparent glass printing process called G3DP.

G3DP is an additive manufacturing platform designed to print optically transparent glass.
The color and transparency of the glass can be altered, as well as other properties such as how the glass reflects and refracts light.

And this printer doesn't have to make straight lines or simple cylinders only. The machine drizzles glass like honey into fascinatingly beautiful shapes.

Concrete using recycled tires:
UBC, the University of British Columbia engineers have developed a more resilient type of concrete using recycled tires that could be used for concrete structures like buildings, roads, dams and bridges while reducing landfill waste.

The researchers experimented with different proportions of recycled tire fibres and other materials used in concrete—cement, sand and water—before finding the ideal mix, which includes 0.35 per cent tire fibres

Recycled-rubber roads are not new; asphalt roads that incorporate rubber “crumbs” from shredded tires exist in the U.S., Germany, Spain, Brazil and China. But using the polymer fibres from tires has the unique benefit of potentially improving the resilience of concrete and extending its lifespan.

Bioinspired Cement Paste for Stronger and more Durable Concrete:
Researchers at MIT are seeking to redesign concrete — the most widely used human-made material in the world — by following nature’s blueprints.
In a paper published online in the journal Construction and Building Materials, the team contrasts cement paste — concrete’s binding ingredient — with the structure and properties of natural materials such as bones, shells, and deep-sea sponges.

As the researchers observed, these biological materials are exceptionally strong and durable, due to their precise assembly of structures at multiple length scales, from the molecular to the macro, or visible, level.
From their observations, the team proposed a new bioinspired, “bottom-up” approach for designing cement paste.

Hydrogel-based Wound Dressing:
MIT engineers have designed a smart band-aid: a sticky, stretchy, gel-like material that can incorporate temperature sensors, LED lights, and other electronics, as well as tiny, drug-delivering reservoirs and channels. The “smart wound dressing” releases medicine in response to changes in skin temperature and can be designed to light up if the medicine is running low.

When the dressing is applied to a highly flexible area, such as the elbow or knee, it stretches with the body, keeping the embedded electronics functional and intact.

The key to the design is a hydrogel matrix. The hydrogel is a rubbery material, mostly composed of water, designed to bond strongly to surfaces such as gold, titanium, aluminum, silicon, glass, and ceramic.

New thin material that mimics Cell Membranes:
Materials scientists have created a new material that performs like a cell membrane found in nature. Such a material has long been sought for applications as varied as water purification and drug delivery.

Referred to as a lipid-like peptoid , the material can assemble itself into a sheet thinner, but more stable, than a soap bubble. The assembled sheet can withstand being submerged in a variety of liquids and can even repair itself after damage.

Atomically Thin Metallic Boron "Borophene":
A team of scientists has, for the first time, created a two-dimensional sheet of boron. This new 2D material is named as borophene.

Scientists have been interested in two-dimensional materials for their unique characteristics, particularly involving their electronic properties. Borophene is an unusual material because it shows many metallic properties at the nanoscale even though three-dimensional, or bulk, boron is nonmetallic and semiconducting.

Because borophene is both metallic and atomically thin, it holds promise for possible applications ranging from electronics to photovoltaics.

Images under a scanning tunnelling microscope revealed that borophene could take different forms, depending on the temperature used to make it and on how the atoms of boron sat on the silver below. One looked smooth, while the other appeared stripy, with corrugations like the ridges and furrows of a ploughed field.

Hierarchical membrane for Separating oil and water:
Whenever there is a major spill of oil into water, the two tend to mix into a suspension of tiny droplets, called as "emulsion".

It is extremely hard to separate them. And they can cause severe damage to ecosystems. Now, MIT researchers have discovered a new, inexpensive way of getting the two fluids apart again.Their newly developed membrane could be manufactured at industrial scale, and could process large quantities of the finely mixed materials back into pure oil and water.

In addition to its possible role in cleaning up spills, the new method could also be used for routine drilling, such as in the deep ocean as well as on land, where water is injected into wells to help force oil out of deep rock formations.

A Shampoo Bottle that Empties Completely:
It’s one of life’s little annoyances: that last bit of shampoo that won’t quite pour out of the bottle. Or the last bit of hand soap, or dish soap, or laundry detergent.Now researchers at The Ohio State University have found a way to create the perfect texture inside plastic bottles to let soap products flow freely.

The technique involves lining a plastic bottle with microscopic y-shaped structures that cradle the droplets of soap aloft above tiny air pockets, so that the soap never actually touches the inside of the bottle. The “y” structures are built up using much smaller nanoparticles made of silica, or quartz—an ingredient in glass—which, when treated further, won’t stick to soap.

It works for "polypropylen" a common plastic used to package foodstuffs and household goods. Polypropylene isn’t the most common plastic bottle material, but 177 million pounds of it were made into bottles and bottle lids in the United States in 2014 alone. Aside from shampoo, soap and detergent bottles, it’s also used for yogurt tubs, ketchup bottles and medical bottles, single-serve coffee pods and Starbucks iced beverage cups.

Bubble-wrapped, sponge-like Material:
Harvesting solar energy as heat has many applications, such as power generation, residential water heating, desalination, distillation and wastewater treatment. However, the solar flux is diffuse, and often requires optical concentration, a costly component, to generate the high temperatures needed for some of these applications.

MIT engineers have invented a bubble-wrapped, sponge-like device that soaks up natural sunlight and heats water to boiling temperatures, generating steam through its pores.
This device is capable of generating 100 ∘C steam under ambient air conditions without optical concentration.

The design, which the researchers call a “solar vapor generator,” requires no expensive mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight, but instead relies on a combination of relatively low-tech materials to capture ambient sunlight and concentrate it as heat. The heat is then directed toward the pores of the sponge, which draw water up and release it as steam.

Ultrathin Invisibility Skin Cloak makes 3D Objects Disappear:
Scientists have devised an ultra-thin invisibility “skin” cloak that can conform to the shape of an object and hide it from detection with visible light. Although this cloak is only microscopic in size, the principles behind the technology should enable it to be scaled-up to conceal macroscopic items as well.

Working with brick-like blocks of gold nanoantennas, the Berkeley researchers fashioned a “skin cloak” barely 80 nanometers in thickness, that was wrapped around a three-dimensional object about the size of a few biological cells and arbitrarily shaped with multiple bumps and dents. The surface of the skin cloak was meta-engineered to reroute reflected light waves so that the object was rendered invisible to optical detection when the cloak is activated.


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