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 Post subject: Basics of 3D Printing
PostPosted: Mon Apr 24, 2017 6:34 am 

Joined: Fri Nov 13, 2015 3:56 am
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What is the history of 3D Printing?
Chuck Hull invented the first 3D printing process called ‘stereolithography’ in 1983.
In a patent, he defined stereolithography as a method and apparatus for making solid objects by successively printing thin layers of the ultraviolet curable material one on top of the other.
The earliest 3D printing technologies first became visible in the late 1980’s, at which time they were called Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies.
The very first patent application for RP technology was filed by a Dr Kodama, in Japan, in May 1980. Unfortunately for Dr Kodama, the full patent specification was subsequently not filed before the one year deadline after the application, which is particularly disastrous considering that he was a patent lawyer
3D Systems’ first commercial RP system, the SLA-1, was introduced in 1987 and following rigorous testing the first of these system was sold in 1988.

What is 3D Printing?
It refers to processes used to synthesize a three-dimensional object in which successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object.
It is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.
The technology is significant because it offers direct manufacturing, meaning a design goes directly from you to physical product through a computer and a printer.
The term 3D printing covers a host of processes and technologies that offer a full spectrum of capabilities for the production of parts and products in different materials.

What is the other name of 3D Printing?
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM)

What are the Advantages of 3D Printing?
3D printing brings a revolutionary approach to manufacturing through three key advantages:
Shorter lead time,
design freedom,
and lower costs.

How does 3D printing work?
It all starts with making a virtual design of the object you want to create. This virtual design is for instance a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file.
This CAD file is created using a 3D modeling application or with a 3D scanner (to copy an existing object). A 3D scanner can make a 3D digital copy of an object.
Every 3D print starts as a digital 3D design file – like a blueprint – for a physical object. Trying to print without a design file is like trying to print a document on a sheet of paper without a text file.
This design file is sliced into thin layers which is then sent to the 3D printer.

What is 3D modelling software?
3D modeling software also comes in many forms. There’s industrial grade software that costs thousands a year per license, but also free open source software, like Blender, for instance.
There are three main categories: CAD Tools, Freeform Modeling Tools and Sculpting Tools.
3D modeling softwares are programs designed to build 3D models of objects.
The models are then used in various fields, such as architecture or civil engineering, videogames, animation, simulation, but they can even be printed .

What is Stereolithography in 3D Printing?
Stereolithography (SL) is widely recognized as the first 3D printing process; it was certainly the first to be commercialised.
SL is a laser-based process that works with photopolymer resins, that react with the laser and cure to form a solid in a very precise way to produce very accurate parts.
It is a complex process, but simply put, the photopolymer resin is held in a vat with a movable platform inside.

What is digital light processing in 3D Printing?
DLP or digital light processing is a similar process to stereolithography in that it is a 3D printing process that works with photopolymers. The major difference is the light source.
DLP uses a more conventional light source, such as an arc lamp, with a liquid crystal display panel or a deformable mirror device (DMD), which is applied to the entire surface of the vat of photopolymer resin in a single pass, generally making it faster than SL.

What are the applications of 3DPrinting?
Applications include rapid prototyping, architectural scale models & maquettes, healthcare (3D printing with human tissue) and entertainment.
Other examples of 3D printing would include reconstructing fossils in paleontology, replicating ancient artifacts in archaeology, reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology and reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations.

Who is using 3D printing?
It can be beneficial for anyone, regardless of industry or profession.
Here we collected some common examples to show how people use 3D printing and why they chose the technology as their preferred prototyping of manufacturing method for specific use cases.
In short, practically everywhere. Aerospace, medicine, education – the list goes on.

What are the materials used to print 3D objects?
Many different materials can be used for 3D printing, such as ABS plastic, PLA, polyamide (nylon), glass filled polyamide, stereolithography materials (epoxy resins), silver, titanium, steel, wax, photopolymers and polycarbonate.

Whats the difference between a basic rapid prototyping machine and a 3D printer?
3D printers are the simple version of rapid prototyping machines. It is lower lost and less capable.
Rapid prototyping is a conventional method that has been used by automotive and aircraft industries for years.
3D printers are compact and smaller than Rapid Protyping machines.
Rapid prototyping machines have build chambers at least 10 inches on a side, a 3D printer has less than 8 inches on a side.
3D printers are less accurate than rapid prototyping machines. Because of its simplicity the material choices are also limited.
In other words, 3D printing/additive manufacturing is the process, and rapid prototyping is the end result.
Rapid prototyping is one of many applications under the 3D printing/additive manufacturing umbrella.

What are 3d Printing technologies are available?
There are several different 3D printing technologies are available such as SLS (selective laser sintering), FDM (fused deposition modeling) & SLA (stereolithograhpy) are the most widely used technologies for 3D printing. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) use melted or softened materials to produce layers.
All 3D printing technologies are similar, as they construct an object layer by layer to create complex shapes.

What is meant by Selective Laser Sintering(SLS)?
Laser Sintering, also known as selective Laser Sintering (SLS), is among the most versatile and frequently used 3D printing technologies: you can find laser-sintered parts in airplanes, wearables, machine components and production tools.
Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material (typically metal), aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model, binding the material together to create a solid structure.
The SLS process was developed and patented in the 1980s by Carl Deckard — then an undergraduate student at the University of Texas — and his mechanical engineering professor, Joe Beaman.
Using SLS, companies can create prototypes that are stored digitally as .STL files, which they can redesign or reprint as needed.

How SLS 3D Printing work?
A computer-controlled laser beam selectively binds together particles in the powder bed, by raising the powder temperature above the glass transition point after which adjacent particles flow together.
An object printed with an SLS machine starts as a computer-aided design (CAD) file. CAD files are converted to .STL format, which can be understood by a 3D printing apparatus.
Objects printed with SLS are made with powder materials, most commonly plastics, such as nylon, which are dispersed in a thin layer on top of the build platform inside an SLS machine.

Can an SLS Machine be Used at Home?
At the moment, no. It is ill-advised to use SLS machine in homes because the high-powered lasers SLS machines use are potentially insidious especially when used in the typical home environment.

What gets made in SLS 3D Printing?
SLS machines can print objects in a variety of materials, such as plastics, glass, ceramics and even metal (which is a related process known as direct metal laser sintering).
One example of this is the aerospace industry, in which SLS is used to build prototypes for airplane parts.
SLS can produce parts from a relatively wide range of commercially available powder materials. These include polymers such as nylon (neat, glass-filled, or with other fillers) or polystyrene, metals including steel, titanium, alloy mixtures, and composites and green sand.

Which companies are using SLS 3D Printing?
3D Systems Inc. is the company most often associated with SLS printing in the United States.
The company prints build-to-order parts for customers, but it also sells its SLS machines for use in business and manufacturing.
There are also many companies around the United States that use SLS machines to provide their clients with high-quality prototypes and finished parts.

What are the advantages of SLS 3D Printing?
It is fully self-supporting
It allows for parts to be built within other parts in a process called nesting - with highly complex geometry that simply could not be constructed any other way
Parts possess high strength and stiffness Good chemical resistance
Due to the excellent mechanical properties the material is often used to substitute typical injection molding plastics.
One of the major benefits of SLS is that it doesn't require the support structures that many other AM technologies use to prevent the design from collapsing during production.
This technology is suitable for interlocking parts, moving parts, living hinges and other highly complex designs.

What are the disadvantages of SLS 3D Printing?
SLS printed parts have surface porosity. Such porosity can be sealed by applying sealant such as cyanacrylate
The biggest problem of the technology is that the fabricated parts can be porous and/or have a rough surface depending on the used materials.
Another disadvantage is that the detail is not as crisp and sharp when compared with other processes, such as SLA.
The SLS printers tend to be large, cumbersome expensive and not as readily adaptable to home use.

Interesting 3D Printing videos

Watch interesting 3D Printing videos at ... _k3pfwqTQ2
Get more details about 3D Printing application at viewtopic.php?f=30&t=9519

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