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PostPosted: Tue May 16, 2017 7:54 am 
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Nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology is a broad term that covers many areas of science, research and technology. Nanotechnology is a field of research and innovation concerned with building 'things' - generally, materials and devices - on the scale of atoms and molecules. Nanotechnology is defined as the study and use of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology combines solid state physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, chemical engineering, biochemistry and biophysics, and materials science.

One area of nanotechnology has been evolving for the last 40 years and is the source of the great microelectronics revolution- the techniques of micro- and nano-lithography and etching. Nanotechnology is hailed as having the potential to increase the efficiency of energy consumption, help clean the environment, and solve major health problems. Nanotechnology include materials in the form of very thin films used in catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and as nanoparticles used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and coatings.

This Video explains NanoTechnology in simple way so that anyone can easily understand about Nanotechnology and potential applications of nanotechnology and the risks associated with nanotechnology.


Basic terms related to Nanotechnology:
Nanometre:
A nanometre (nm) is one billionth of a metre and so this kind of engineering involves manipulating individual atoms.
The nanometer is a unit of measure – just like inches, feet, and miles.

Nanotube:
Carbon nanotubes can perform as a catalyst in a fuel cell, avoiding the use of expensive platinum on which most catalysts are based
Carbon 'nanotubes' are 100 times stronger than steel but six times lighter.

Nanowires:
Electrical conductors, called nanowires, would be only one atom thick.

Nanoelectronics:
Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive technology because present candidates are significantly different from traditional transistors.
Nanoelectronics holds the promise of making computer processors more powerful than are possible with conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques.
Nanoelectronics refer to the field of study which is concerned with understanding, exploring and exploiting the characteristics of devices and instruments, which have directional dimensions at the nano scale.

Nanoscale:
The nanoscopic scale (or nanoscale) usually refers to structures with a length scale applicable to nanotechnology, usually cited as 1–100 nanometers.

Nanoscience:
Nanoscience is the study of atoms, molecules, and objects whose size is on the nanometer scale (1 - 100 nm).
Nanoscience has already impacted our lives with innovations such as stain-resistant fabrics inspired by nanoscale features found on lotus plants and computer hard drives, which store information on magnetic strips that are just 20 nanometers thick.
Nanoscience is the exploration and analysis of phenomena which arise as a function of nanoscale interactions at the molecular and atomic levels of materials.

Nanomaterial:
Nanotechnologies involve the creation and/or manipulation of materials at the nanometre (nm) scale.
By comparison, a human hair is approximately 70,000 nm in diameter, a red blood cell is approximately 5,000 nm wide and simple organic molecules have sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 nm.

Nanoparticle:
Nanoparticles have one dimension that measures 100 nanometers or less.
The use of polymeric micelle nanoparticles to deliver drugs to tumors.
Iron nanoparticles are being used to clean up carbon tetrachloride pollution in ground water.

Nanoengineering:
Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale. It derives its name from the nanometre, a unit of measurement equalling one billionth of a meter.

Nanocomposite:
Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material.

Nanostructure:
A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

Nanobots:
Nanorobotics is an emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or near the scale of a nanometre (10−9 meters).
nanorobots might be programmed to single out and kill cancer cells.

Nano-enabled products:
Nano-enabled products are those that gain value-added attributes from their utilization of nanomaterials, inclusion of nanodevices within the product, or have nanocoatings or treatments. Nano-enabled processes utilize nanotechnology to produce products more efficiently, often with sustainable development benefits.

Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology:


1)Cleaning your teeth without Toothpaste:
A group of Japanese techies have designed a toothbrush that uses super skinny nylon bristles wrapped in nano-size mineral ions to scrub teeth clean. Stains are lifted, plaque and other unwanted materials are avoided, and the enamel that defends your teeth from decay is protected.

It is used without toothpaste, just with water, and relies on mineral nanotechnology. It's named as Misoka toothbrush.The MISOKA toothbrush for cleaning your teeth with only water was first launched onto the market by its creator in the year 2007 i-e around 8 years back.

We can find this MISOKA toothbrush for as low as $35 on eBay and for only $14 on Amazon


2)5D Data Storage:
Scientists at the University of Southampton have made a major step forward in the development of digital data storage that is capable of surviving for billions of years.

Using nanostructured glass, scientists from the University’s Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) have developed the recording and retrieval processes of five dimensional (5D) digital data by femtosecond laser writing.

The storage allows unprecedented properties including 360 TB/disc data capacity, thermal stability up to 1,000°C and virtually unlimited lifetime at room temperature (13.8 billion years at 190°C ) opening a new era of eternal data archiving.

Coined as the ‘Superman memory crystal’, as the glass memory has been compared to the “memory crystals” used in the Superman films, the data is recorded via self-assembled nanostructures created in fused quartz. The information encoding is realised in five dimensions: the size and orientation in addition to the three dimensional position of these nanostructures.


3)Nanotechnology in textiles:
Researchers from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia say they have developed a cheap and efficient new way to infuse textiles with tiny strands of silver – which can degrade organic matter when exposed to light.

The challenge for researchers has been to bring the concept out of the lab by working out how to build these nanostructures on an industrial scale and permanently attach them to textiles.

The RMIT team’s novel approach was to grow the nanostructures directly onto the textiles by dipping them into a few solutions, resulting in the development of stable nanostructures within 30 minutes. When exposed to light, it took less than six minutes for some of the nano-enhanced textiles to spontaneously clean themselves

This work paves the way towards nano-enhanced textiles that can spontaneously clean themselves of stains and grime simply by being put under a light bulb or worn out in the sun. i-e It can bring self-cleaning cloths which can clean themselves without requiring water or washing machine.


4)Detection of Disease:
3D rendering of IBM Research lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology that can separate biological particles down to 20 nanometers (nm) in diameter, a scale that gives access to important particles such as DNA, viruses and exosomes.

The IBM team's work has focused on exosomes which are vesicles that contain information about the health status of the originating cell that they are shed from, revealing the presence and state of developing cancer and other diseases.

This innovation could potentially reveal signs of disease at the earliest of stages, before patients experience any physical symptoms and when the outcome from treatment is most positive.



5)Create Cement Paste for Concrete:
Researchers at MIT are seeking to redesign concrete — the most widely used human-made material in the world — by following nature’s blueprints.

In a paper published online in the journal Construction and Building Materials, the team contrasts cement paste — concrete’s binding ingredient — with the structure and properties of natural materials such as bones, shells, and deep-sea sponges.

Ultimately, the team hopes to identify materials in nature that may be used as sustainable and longer-lasting alternatives to Portland cement, which requires a huge amount of energy to manufacture.

Implementing nanotechnology in concrete is one powerful example to scale up the power of nanoscience to solve grand engineering challenges. It could lead to more durable roads, bridges, structures, reduce the carbon and energy footprint.


6)Tackling climate change:
The fight against climate change means we need new ways to generate and use electricity, and nanotechnology is already playing a role.

A new Swedish company named "HyMeAir" is seeking to raise funds on kickstarter.com to support the development of its Nano Towers that will filter out hydrogen and methane from the air when the wind blows .

According to the HyMeAir's kickstarter project description, Nano Towers will give the world virtually free energy, free from emissions, manmade CO2. HyMeAir predicts that this invention could give your finances a real boost, for example enabling you to fill up your car in an environmental friendly way for a few dollars .

In the future, nanotechnology could also enable objects to harvest energy from their environment.



7)Complete absorbtions of Light:

A British company, called "Surrey NanoSystems" has produced a strange material so black that it absorbs all but 0.035 per cent of visual light, setting a new world record.

This "super black" material is named as "vantablack" by combining first letters of the term "Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays". It can be used for enabling astronomical cameras, telescopes and infrared scanning systems to function more effectively.

Arranging the carbon nanotubes vertically makes sure the light cannot escape the layer and is almost completely absorbed. Vantablack has the highest thermal conductivity and lowest mass-volume of any material that can be used in high-emissivity applications.

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